Cannabis, cannabidiol, cannabinoid…when first exploring CBD products, it’s common to become overwhelmed by the number of terms swirling around. If you’ve ever found yourself confused by the jargon surrounding CBD, look no further than this glossary to clarify what exactly you’re buying.
CBD (cannabidiol) is one of the most prevalent natural compounds (cannabinoids) found in hemp and marijuana plants. Unlike THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD is non-intoxicating. This is because it does not bind with CB1 receptors. CBD has the potential to aid in potential health and wellness benefits, as well as alleviate certain symptoms of certain ailments. CBD can be consumed in various doses and through various mediums, including vapes, tinctures, and capsules.
CBD oil is, simply, an oil containing some concentration of cannabidiol (CBD). CBD oil can be derived from hemp or marijuana plants. Because of this, it is common that “hemp oil” and “CBD oil” can be used interchangeably. While there are several possible methods of extraction, the most commonly used are CO2 extraction, which filters the plant matter through a series of high pressure, temperature-controlled chambers, and chemical extraction using ethyl alcohol. CBD can also be heated in a process called decarboxylation to improve the bioavailability of the product. CBD oil often comes in a tincture for ease of use. CBD oil can be classified as “full-spectrum”, containing other cannabinoids in addition to CBD, or “isolate based”, meaning it contains only the CBD cannabinoid.
Also known as CBD, cannabidiol is one of the 113 non-psychoactive cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. Hemp plants are high in cannabidiol. You should know that cannabidiol will not cause intoxication, even when ingested in large amounts. The terms cannabidiol and CBD are used interchangeably, with CBD serving as a shortened form of the word cannabidiol.
The messengers, neurotransmitters, of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids influence the endocannabinoid receptors located throughout your body and brain to generate a response. There are two types of cannabinoids. The cannabinoids produced by your body are called endocannabinoids. The cannabinoids from cannabis plants are called exogenous cannabinoids. The exogenous cannabinoids of CBD mimic the effects of the endocannabinoids that are produced as needed in your body and help keep your endocannabinoid system balanced.
The cannabis plant is one of the oldest domesticated crops in our history. As a result of selective breeding, some cannabis plants were bred for religious and medical purposes (marijuana), while others were cultivated for food, rope, and textiles (hemp). Hemp and marijuana are classified according to their THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) content. While marijuana contains 5-30 percent THC, hemp contains only trace amounts (less than .3 percent), not enough to create any psychoactive effects.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a collection of cell receptors and the corresponding molecules (agonists) in the human body. This system helps to regulate sleep, appetite, mood, motor control, immune function, pleasure, pain, reproduction and fertility, memory and temperature regulation. When the ECS is in balance, one experiences homeostasis.
The entourage effect is used to explain how the whole has a greater impact than it’s individual parts. There are more than 400 trace components found in cannabis. Many of these compounds have the ability to interact synergistically, meaning they work together. The entourage effect accounts for the ability of synergistic plant compounds to multiply the effects of other compounds. Many people prefer “full spectrum” CBD products because of the potential to benefit from the entourage effect.
The essence of the plant that still contains the plant terpenes, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and flavonoids of the original plant source. A full- spectrum CBD product is the product of choice for those looking to benefit from the entourage effect. Just a few of the many beneficial compounds found in full spectrum CBD include additional cannabinoids, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, magnesium, potassium, and all 20 amino acids.
A non-psychoactive cannabis plant commonly cultivated for food (hemp seeds), textiles, skincare products, and dietary supplements. Hemp is a tall, thin plant and grows up to 20 feet tall. While hemp and marijuana are both of the species cannabis Sativa, hemp is differentiated from marijuana by its low THC content. To be classified as hemp, the plant must contain .3 percent THC or less. This is not enough to cause any form of intoxication, even when ingesting hemp oil in large quantities.
Hemp oil is the essence of the hemp plant. Hemp oil and CBD oil are terms used interchangeably within the CBD industry. When selecting a hemp oil, it is important to note how much CBD is present in the final product.
Hemp Seed Oil
Hemp seed oil and Hemp oil (CBD) are entirely different products. While hemp oil is extracted from the stalks and stems of the plant, hemp seed oil is pressed from the seeds. Hemp seed oil is most often used in skin care products and for cooking. There is no cannabidiol in hemp seed oil. Cannabidiol is the cannabinoid responsible for the potential health benefits of CBD products.
Industrial or agricultural hemp, which is the type of hemp from which CBD oil can be derived from, is grown specifically for incorporation into a range of products. As noted, industrial hemp cannot contain more than 0.3% THC and is therefore entirely separate from THC-containing Cannabis strains, including medical marijuana.
CBD isolate is cannabidiol in its purest form. To obtain an isolate, full-spectrum CBD is further processed, removing all of the plant oils, waxes, chlorophyll and other plant materials. The result is a refined product that is more than 99 percent pure CBD. Isolates are flavorless and odorless. Products made with CBD isolate are often preferred by those who want to avoid ingesting even trace amounts of THC, and those who prefer adding CBD to their favorite recipes.
Marijuana is a cannabis plant classified as a schedule one controlled substance. Marijuana contains high levels (5-30 percent) of the cannabinoid THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). This psychoactive cannabinoid binds to the CB1 receptors in the brain, resulting in the state of relaxation and euphoria associated with marijuana use. Although marijuana is not legal for use in most states, it can be prescribed by doctors in states that have legalized medical marijuana.
MCT stands for medium-chain triglycerides. MCT oils are easily metabolized by the body rather than being stored as fat or cholesterol. Typically, MCT oil is a combination of palm oil and coconut oil. The resulting compound is believed to be superior to using each of these oils on their own. MCTs are sometimes used to reduce cholesterol levels and to increase the muscle mass and strength of the elderly.
Pure CBD Oil
Pure CBD oil is essentially the opposite of a full- spectrum product. Pure CBD oil is created using CBD isolate with MCT oil and anhydrous hemp oil. Pure CBD oil is odorless, flavorless and ideal for those who don’t care for the flavor of CBD, or want to be assured of using a THC-free product. Pure CBD oil can be used sublingually or added to your choice of foods or beverages.
Terpenes are another type of compound found in plants including cannabis plant. In particular, they are a class of organic hydrocarbons responsible for the plant’s aroma. There is thought that terpenes may interact with other compounds from cannabis to alter or magnify the effect of CBD, which is referred to as the entourage effect.
A CBD tincture is a blend of CBD extract and a carrier oil like MTC. CBD tinctures are available for purchase in a wide range of strengths. Tinctures can be made with full-spectrum CBD oil or CBD isolates. While tinctures can be added to foods and beverages, they are typically held under the tongue (sublingually) for a short time before swallowing to allow some of the cannabinoids to be absorbed into the bloodstream before the tincture reaches the digestive tract.
THC stands for delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, which is the main psychoactive compound found in the Cannabis plant. THC is responsible for the high that accompanies marijuana. Hemp plants contain extremely small amounts of THC (<0.3%).
When applied externally, CBD absorbs through the skin, bypassing the digestive system. Topical CBD products, such as creams and ointments, are often preferred by those looking for targeted benefits from their CBD product. When applied topically, CBD is also shown to have skin-soothing properties and may protect skin from the signs of aging.